Fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (crushed stone or gravel), portland cement, and water are used to make concrete. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to replace a portion of the portland cement in some concretes. The two most popular supplementary cementitious materials are slag cement and fly ash. The water-cementitious ratio is the most critical factor in determining the strength of concrete. The water-cementitious ratio is the weight of water in a batch of concrete separated by cementitious content. Chemical admixtures are sometimes used in concrete to minimize water content (and therefore improve workability) or regulate the concrete set.
Cement is one of the components that make up concrete, which is the most straightforward answer to this issue. Cement is a limestone-based powder that keeps all of the other materials in concrete together.
Cement and concrete are modern terms of Latin roots. "Concrete" is derived from the Latin word "concretus," which means "to harden together." The word "cement" comes from the Latin word "cementum," which means "roughly cut stone."
Pavement is very similar to concrete, with one minor exception. The cement binder in concrete is replaced with asphalt or tar.
Concrete has a long lifespan of thousands of years. The earliest known human-made concrete mix dates from about 500 BC. However, several factors such as humidity in the climate, maintenance, and aggregate consistency may significantly affect the concrete's lifetime.
So there you have it: answers to the three most often asked concrete questions. Now you know a little more about this often-overlooked component of our environment.